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"Encyclopedia of Holidays and Celebrations: A Country-by-Country Guide" explores major holidays and festivals in 206 countries. The first two volumes are organized alphabetically by country. The third volume features overview articles that provide detailed information about major holidays celebrated around the world, as well as articles on major world religions. Country entries include: general information, including location, population, government, languages, religions, and national holidays; a brief introduction to the country's origins, geography, economy, current lifestyle and culture, and cuisine; subsections on national holidays, religious holidays, regional holidays, and rites of passage; subentries on holidays, including the date it is celebrated; who celebrates it; and a description of the origins, symbols, and rituals associated with the celebration/commemoration; and further reading. Entries on internationally observed holidays include: holidays in an international context; at-a-glance information on the origin, alternate names, dates of observance, and who observes the holiday; an introduction; a detailed description of the origins and history of the holiday; and how it is observed; and further reading. Entries on religious communities include: at-a-glance information about the size of the community and its place of origin; an introduction to the religion; the origins and history of the community; the way in which the community celebrates/commemorates the holiday; and further reading. Two hundred black-and-white photographs complement the text, along with numerous sidebars and callouts focusing on fun facts relating to specific holidays. Additional features include calendar systems around the world, regional maps, indexes by holidays and countries, and a comprehensive index.
This book is an outgrowth of the NSF-CBMS conference Nonlinear Waves GBP3 Weak Turbulence held at Case Western Reserve University in May 1992. The principal speaker at the conference was Professor V. E. Zakharov who delivered a series of ten lectures outlining the historical and ongoing developments in the field. Some twenty other researchers also made presentations and it is their work which makes up the bulk of this text. Professor Zakharov's opening chapter serves as a general introduction to the other papers, which for the most part are concerned with the application of the theory in various fields. While the word "turbulence" is most often associated with f:l. uid dynamics it is in fact a dominant feature of most systems having a large or infinite number of degrees of freedom. For our purposes we might define turbulence as the chaotic behavior of systems having a large number of degrees of freedom and which are far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Work in field can be broadly divided into two areas: * The theory of the transition from smooth laminar motions to the disordered motions characteristic of turbulence. * Statistical studies of fully developed turbulent systems. In hydrodynamics, work on the transition question dates back to the end of the last century with pioneering contributions by Osborne Reynolds and Lord Rayleigh.
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